Weapons, ammunition and paramilitary equipment were seized on Sunday afternoon when the men were arrested in the Knocknaree area about seven miles south of Clonmel on the Tipperary/Waterford border.
It is understood that the raid followed a lengthy surveillance of the forest clearing which included a makeshift firing range attached to the camp.
Two rifles, two shotguns and ammunition were taken away from examination.
A 10-year-old boy who was found on the scene was taken home by gardai and follow-up searches were undertaken.
“Ten males, ranging in ages from their late teens to their late 40’s, were arrested at the scene at what appears to be a training camp,” gardai said in a statement.
“A number of firearms, a quantity of ammunition and other paramilitary paraphernalia were seized.”
Gardai said those arrested are believed to be from Limerick, Wexford and Waterford.
“It is believed that they are all aligned to the dissident republican grouping the Continuity IRA,” the statement added.
Gardai said searches were continuing involving expert anti-terrorist teams from the heavily armed Emergency Response Unit and the special detective and national surveillance units. They were backed up by ordinary gardai from the area.
The ten are being detained at garda stations in Waterford City, Tramore, Co. Waterford and Clonmel, Co Tipperary.
Under section 30 of the Offences Against the State Act they can be held for up to 72 hours without charge.
The Continuity IRA is a hard-line breakaway group that split from the mainstream Provisional IRA and began launching attacks after an abortive 1994 ceasefire.
Its members have been working with the other more recent breakaway group, the Real IRA, that split from the Provisional IRA during the peace process negotiations that led to the Good Friday agreement and the now suspended power-sharing administration.
The Continuity IRA is the only republican faction to have never called a ceasefire. It’s reported to be supportive of the political line of Republican Sinn Fein, which split from Sinn Fein in 1986 on the issue of taking seats in the Dail.
Police on both sides of the border have warned that the dissident groups still pose a serious threat but both factions have recently suffered setbacks with arrests of activists and the interception of van bombs.
Both appear to be extensively infiltrated and leading suspected members are under surveillance.
The recent break-up of a multi-million euro cigarette smuggling operation from Holland also dealt a blow to its fund-raising activities of the Real IRA.